EXEC(II) 8/5/73 EXEC(II) NAME exec, execl, execv - execute a file SYNOPSIS (exec = 11.) sys exec; name; args ... name: <...\0> ... args: arg0; arg1; ...; 0 arg0: <...\0> arg1: <...\0> ... execl(name, arg0, arg1, ..., argn, 0) char *name, *arg0, *arg1, ..., *argn; execv(name, argv) char *name; char *argv[ ]; DESCRIPTION Exec overlays the calling process with the named file, then transfers to the beginning of the core image of the file. There can be no return from the file; the calling core image is lost. Files remain open across exec calls. Ignored signals remain ignored across exec, but signals that are caught are reset to their default values. Each user has a real user ID and group ID and an effective user ID and group ID. The real ID identifies the person using the system; the effective ID determines his access privileges. Exec changes the effective user and group ID to the owner of the executed file if the file has the ``set- user-ID'' or ``set-group-ID'' modes. The real user ID is not affected. The form of this call differs somewhat depending on whether it is called from assembly language or C; see below for the C version. The first argument to exec is a pointer to the name of the file to be executed. The second is the address of a null- terminated list of pointers to arguments to be passed to the file. Conventionally, the first argument is the name of the file. Each pointer addresses a string terminated by a null byte. Once the called file starts execution, the arguments are available as follows. The stack pointer points to a word containing the number of arguments. Just above this number is a list of pointers to the argument strings. The arguments are placed as high as possible in core. sp-> nargs arg0 ... argn -1 arg0: <arg0\0> ... argn: <argn\0> From C, two interfaces are available. execl is useful when a known file with known arguments is being called; the arguments to execl are the character strings constituting the file and the arguments; as in the basic call, the first argument is conventionally the same as the file name (or its last component). A 0 argument must end the argument list. The execv version is useful when the number of arguments is unknown in advance; the arguments to execv are the name of the file to be executed and a vector of strings containing the arguments. The last argument string must be followed by a 0 pointer. When a C program is executed, it is called as follows: main(argc, argv) int argc; char **argv; where argc is the argument count and argv is an array of character pointers to the arguments themselves. As indicated, argc is conventionally at least one and the first member of the array points to a string containing the name of the file. Argv is not directly usable in another execv, since argv[argc] is -1 and not 0. SEE ALSO fork (II) DIAGNOSTICS If the file cannot be found, if it is not executable, if it does not have a valid header (407, 410, or 411 octal as first word), if maximum memory is exceeded, or if the arguments require more than 512 bytes a return from exec constitutes the diagnostic; the error bit (c-bit) is set. Even for the super-user, at least one of the execute- permission bits must be set for a file to be executed. From C the returned value is -1. BUGS Only 512 characters of arguments are allowed.