ROFF(I) 11/4/74 ROFF(I)
roff - format text
roff [ +n ] [
-n ] [ -s ] [ -h ] file ...
Roff formats text according to control lines embedded in the
text in the given files. Encountering a nonexistent file
terminates printing. Incoming interconsole messages are
turned off during printing. The optional flag arguments
+n Start printing at the first page with number n.
-n Stop printing at the first page numbered higher than
-s Stop before each page (including the first) to allow
paper manipulation; resume on receipt of an interrupt
-h Insert tabs in the output stream to replace spaces
Input consists of intermixed text lines, which contain
information to be formatted, and request lines, which
contain instructions about how to format it. Request lines
begin with a distinguished control character, normally a
Output lines may be filled as nearly as possible with words
without regard to input lineation. Line breaks may be
caused at specified places by certain commands, or by the
appearance of an empty input line or an input line beginning
with a space.
The capabilities of roff are specified in the attached
Request Summary. Numerical values are denoted there by n or
+n, titles by t, and single characters by c. Numbers
denoted +n may be signed + or -, in which case they signify
relative changes to a quantity, otherwise they signify an
absolute resetting. Missing n fields are ordinarily taken
to be 1, missing t fields to be empty, and c fields to shut
off the appropriate special interpretation.
Running titles usually appear at top and bottom of every
page. They are set by requests like
Part1 is left justified, part2 is centered, and part3 is
right justified on the page. Any % sign in a title is
replaced by the current page number. Any nonblank may serve
as a quote.
ASCII tab characters are replaced in the input by a
replacement character, normally a space, according to the
column settings given by a .ta command. (See .tr for how to
convert this character on output.)
Automatic hyphenation of filled output is done under control
of .hy. When a word contains a designated hyphenation
character, that character disappears from the output and
hyphens can be introduced into the word at the marked places
/usr/lib/suftab suffix hyphenation tables
nroff (I), troff (I)
Roff is the simplest of the runoff programs, but is utterly
Request Break Initial Meaning
.ad yes yes Begin adjusting right margins.
.ar no arabic Arabic page numbers.
.br yes - Causes a line break - the filling of the
current line is stopped.
.bl n yes - Insert of n blank lines, on new page if
.bp +n yes n=1 Begin new page and number it n; no n
.cc c no c=. Control character becomes `c'.
.ce n yes - Center the next n input lines, without
.de xx no - Define parameterless macro to be invoked
by request `.xx' (definition ends on line
.ds yes no Double space; same as `.ls 2'.
.ef t no t='''' Even foot title becomes t.
.eh t no t='''' Even head title becomes t.
.fi yes yes Begin filling output lines.
.fo no t='''' All foot titles are t.
.hc c no none Hyphenation character becomes `c'.
.he t no t='''' All head titles are t.
.hx no - Title lines are suppressed.
.hy n no n=1 Hyphenation is done, if n=1; and is not
done, if n=0.
.ig no - Ignore input lines through a line
beginning with `..'.
.in +n yes - Indent n spaces from left margin.
.ix +n no - Same as `.in' but without break.
.li n no - Literal, treat next n lines as text.
.ll +n no n=65 Line length including indent is n
.ls +n yes n=1 Line spacing set to n lines per output
.m1 n no n=2 Put n blank lines between the top of
page and head title.
.m2 n no n=2 n blank lines put between head title and
beginning of text on page.
.m3 n no n=1 n blank lines put between end of text
and foot title.
.m4 n no n=3 n blank lines put between the foot title
and the bottom of page.
.na yes no Stop adjusting the right margin.
.ne n no - Begin new page, if n output lines cannot
fit on present page.
.nn +n no - The next n output lines are not
.n1 no no Add 5 to page offset; number lines in
margin from 1 on each page.
.n2 n no no Add 5 to page offset; number lines from
n; stop if n=0.
.ni +n no n=0 Line numbers are indented n.
.nf yes no Stop filling output lines.
.nx filename - Change to input file `filename'.
.of t no t='''' Odd foot title becomes t.
.oh t no t='''' Odd head title becomes t.
.pa +n yes n=1 Same as `.bp'.
.pl +n no n=66 Total paper length taken to be n lines.
.po +n no n=0 Page offset. All lines are preceded by
.ro no arabic Roman page numbers.
.sk n no - Produce n blank pages starting next
.sp n yes - Insert block of n blank lines, except at
top of page.
.ss yes yes Single space output lines, equivalent to
.ta n n.. - Pseudotab settings. Initial tab
settings are columns 9 17 25 ...
.tc c no space Tab replacement character becomes `c'.
.ti +n yes - Temporarily indent next output line n
.tr cdef.. no - Translate c into d, e into f,
.ul n no - Underline the letters and numbers in the
next n input lines.